Coulomb force

Chapter 02, “Quanta transfer is conserved”, describes the conservation of the alterations in space by the transfer of quanta. Chapter 03, “Planck mass”, explains the equivalence between mass and Planck's constant (quanta).

However, what about the environment of the observable mass in relation to the conservation of quanta transfer?

The motion of macroscopic bodies is described by Isaac Newton with the help of the equation:

F = m a

[F = force; m = mass; a = acceleration]

The equation describes the alteration of the velocity of an object (m) by a force. It is not a relativistic equation thus the result is not 100% in line with reality when the object gets a velocity that nears the speed of light. Moreover, Isaac Newton had no idea about the conservation of quanta transfer in space so his analytic concept of the involved phenomena was related to the sensory interpretation of reality (phenomenological physics).

That’s why the force (F) and the acceleration (a) are variables in Newton's equation because no alteration of the accelerated object (mass) was observable.

Mass (m) has a constant magnitude in the equation so we can replace m with the help of a quantity of Planck's constant (see previous chapter about “Planck mass”):

m = (n h)m

[n = integer; h = Planck's constant]

So we can substitute the mass in Newton’s equation:

F = (n h)m a

The mass of the object has a boundary and the volume represents a certain amount of elements, the underlying general structure of the quantum fields. All the elements transfer 1 quantum at the same time so the velocity of the object at a certain moment is the transfer of the local topological transformations of the involved elements (n h).

When there is a high quantity of local topological transformations it will last a lot of time (n t) before all the quanta of the transformation are transferred to adjacent elements ("spin" is responsible for quanta transfer within the boundary). So the observer will conclude that the object has a low velocity.

Suppose the object has the size of only 1 element and the number of transformations (topological deformation) of this single element is 1020 h. Now it will last 1020 t (constant of time) to transfer all the deformation of the element to the environment (adjacent element). Anyway, how do we know the local amount of transformations of the elements in the environment? Because all the elements around do not form a neat “flat space”.

Imagine we can manipulate the transformations of all those elements around the “1 element object”. We increase the average transformations (deformation) of all the distinct elements around with 1010 h. The result is clear: the velocity of our object will double because the transfer of quanta of the “1 element object” to an adjacent element is reduced from 1020 h to 1010 h. Just because the transfer of single quanta is conserved.

Our “experiment” changed the velocity of the object, because we increased the average deforming (= transformations) of the elements around the object. So we applied something to the “1 element object” we call “force” in physics and it shows to be impossible to distinguish the energy of a force from the energy of an object when our point of view is the underlying structure of the quantum fields.

Applying a force to the mass of an object is nothing more than increasing the average deformation of the elements around the object: (n h)F. Now we can rewrite the equation of Newton by substitution:

(n h)F = (n h)m a

Now it is easy to understand the Palladium based cold fusion.

When we apply an electromagnetic wave to a single atom we are increasing the amount of transformations (topological deformation) around the atom. The result is an increase of the velocity of the atom because quanta transfer is conserved.

In other words: hydrogen atoms – locked inside a palladium lattice – must react very strange when we apply an electromagnetic wave to the lattice. They have to rocket away but they cannot because each Hydrogen atom is locked by the lattice of the Palladium atoms.

The Palladium atoms differ from the Hydrogen atoms because of their mass (and the electrostatic attraction = metallic bonding). The effect of a metallic bonding is like adding mass. When we want to accelerate 1 palladium atom, the electrostatic force is like a glue so all the other palladium atoms are theoretically moved too.

The mass of a Palladium atom is 106 times the mass of a Hydrogen atom and every Palladium atom has adjacent Palladium atoms (lattice configuration).

Conclusion: electromagnetic stimulation will alter the velocity of a Hydrogen atom much more than the velocity of a Palladium atom.

In Palladium based fusion there is electromagnetic stimulation with the help of free electrons (electromagnetic wave packets = n h ). So there is not a hit of 1 solitary atom, a bunch of atoms are influenced by the electromagnetic wave (Palladium and Hydrogen atoms).

The Hydrogen atoms cannot accelerate in a free manner because they are “mechanically” bound by the surrounding Palladium atoms. However, we cannot fool the conservation of quanta transfer. So when the acceleration of the Hydrogen atoms is forced to follow the acceleration of the Palladium atoms there must arrive some kind of adaptation to the Hydrogen atoms.

There is only one alteration left to adapt to the new situation: expanding the boundary of the involved Hydrogen nuclei. Expansion of the boundary is just “moving in all directions” for the enclosed quanta of the nucleus. Now the Coulomb force will (temporary) vanish.



Next chapter: "LENR in perspective"